ETFE applications in architecture

The excellent mechanical and self-cleaning properties make ETFE the ideal material for different applications in architecture.

ETFE roofs

ETFE roofing has gained popularity in construction since its first application at the Burges Zoo in 1982. Today, it is successfully utilized in several buildings.

The most commonly used technology for ETFE roofing consists of two or more layers inflated with dry air, creating ETFE cushions. With an accurate design of the membrane cutting pattern, even the most demanding load conditions can be effectively managed.

Wind loads are typically managed through the overpressure of the cushions, which can be controlled in an adaptive way to maintain internal pressure higher than external pressure caused by the wind, preventing fluttering problems.

If there are exceptional snowfalls with loads exceeding the internal pressure of the cushions, the cushions may partially or fully deflate. In this case, the ETFE layers overlap to distribute the load evenly between different layers, ensuring roof coverage and safety even in extreme conditions.

Additionally, if snow loads are extraordinarily high or cushions are oversized, structural support cables may be added to reduce excessive deformation of the ETFE foils when loaded with snow.

Single-layer systems are not commonly used as roofing systems due to the risk of excessive elongation of the ETFE beyond the elastic range. These systems are generally utilized in areas with limited snow loads and are usually reinforced with support cables.

ETFE facades

Thanks to the absence of snow loads, ETFE facade systems are characterized by considerable geometrical freedom with fewer technical limits due to the risk of water stagnation and the accumulation of snow and ice.

In addition to two or more layer cushion systems, modular panel systems or double-curved single-layer systems can be successfully used.
As for the roofs, also in ETFE façades, it is possible to integrate ropes or nets of support ropes that guarantee the construction system even in tropical areas with winds over 36 m / s.

One of the key advantages of using ETFE for facade systems is the possibility to obtain complex three-dimensional shapes at a low cost, especially if compared to glass facade systems.

Greenhouses and winter gardens in ETFE

Greenhouses and winter gardens are one of the most natural applications of ETFE systems thanks to the high transparency of the material, even in the spectra of solar radiation generally shielded by glass panels.

In addition to optimizing thermal gains in the winter season, the high transparency of ETFE increases fruit and vegetable cultivation yield by reducing chemical treatments thanks to the fungicidal action of ultraviolet radiation from sunlight.

In addition to the greater transparency of the covering film, there are also the advantages of a less bulky support structure that reduces the shade on the underlying crops.

The Eden Project in Cornwall is undoubtedly the best-known example of an ETFE greenhouse.

Still, the system can also be used successfully for less expensive applications in agriculture, allowing the rapid and efficient replacement of glass panels or traditional plastic films.

Art installations with ETFE

Digital printing created new opportunities and different possibilities for the customization of ETFE films which have become an alternative to PVC or PU films for applications that require better mechanical strength and aging when exposed to sun rays.

Recent applications of art installations include the Coca-Cola Beatbox pavilion for the London 2012 Olympics (Asif Khan and Pernilla Ohrstedt), the 2015 Serpentine Gallery pavilion (SalgasCano), and the artistic installation Invisible Borders per il Fuorisalone di Milano 2016.

Retrofitting and improvement of existing buildings

Thanks to the lightness and flexibility of ETFE film systems, it is possible to retrofit existing buildings by improving their aesthetics and thermal performance without compromising their structural behavior.

The extremely low self-weight per surface unit (2-3.5kg/m2) does not increase the structural stresses in case of an earthquake and, at the same time,e reducing the risk of debris from detaching from the facade or the roof, injuring passers-by.

Temporary structures in ETFE

Due to the material’s flexibility, temporary structures such as pop-up shops, fairs, or traveling events are generally made of PVC fabrics and films.
However, the recent experience of the itinerant pavilion for the Yamaha MotoGP hospitality area has highlighted the feasibility of modular ETFE facades for nomadic structures and temporary architecture traditionally made with materials other than ETFE.

The Most Amazing Botanical Gardens in the World

Botanical gardens offer visitors the best of two worlds. On the one hand, they give them the opportunity of experiencing nature in a way that is normally impossible. On the other, they are something like a living catalog that has been arranged beautifully and logically.

a beautiful luxuriant botanical garden

Any way you look at them, the best botanical gardens in the world provide a place for both relaxation and education. This article will go over the most remarkable botanical gardens in the world. These are the places that offer the most relaxing natural landscapes, the most amazing species of plants and the most mind-blowing outdoor architecture.

Reasons To Visit Amazing Botanical Gardens Around The World

amazing botanical gardens

Before we share the most amazing botanical gardens the world has to offer, what are some of the main reasons to take some time out of your day to visit one? 

Be Part of a Soothing Environment

The number one reason to spend time in a botanical garden is for a soothing experience and to enhance your mental wellbeing. The majority of the time, we spend our days sitting at a desk with our eyes fixed to a screen. But it’s important to become a part of nature so you feel connected to a natural place on earth. 

Immersing yourself amongst nature helps you to capture some serenity and relaxation. After all, it’s hard to be stressed when you’re in the middle of a beautiful scenery with birds chirping in the background.

Discover New Plants

How many plants have you seen in your lifetime? There’s probably a plethora of selections you haven’t even heard of yet. Spending time in botanical gardens in exotic places in the world gives you the opportunity to enhance your education and experience new sights and smells.

If you already have a passion for nature and plants, there’s a perfect botanical garden for your desires. That could include bonsai trees, medicinal plants and many more. No matter your interests, there’s something for everyone to discover.

Protect The Environment

Finally, one of the biggest benefits of spending time in a botanical garden is having a positive effect on the environment. Many public gardens conserve endangered plants and provide a space for butterflies, birds, bats, and more species. 

Botanical gardens filter pollutants and improve air quality – especially in busy cities. Plant growth absorbs carbon dioxide and provides fresher air for our world. Many researchers study exotic plants in botanical gardens which can be effective for medicinal purposes. So although plants are great for the environment, they’re also significant for our health.

The Most Amazing Botanical Gardens In The World

1. Berlin-Dahlem Botanical Garden and Botanical Museum

the Berlin Darhlem botanical garden interior

Situated in the wonderful city of Berlin, this is one of the oldest botanical gardens in this list. It was designed as a landscaped garden by Adolf Engler. It is comprised of a geographical section of 12.9 hectares and an arboretum measuring 13.9 hectares.

It features fifteen greenhouses that are arranged in a beautiful geometrical style. One of its main features is that it also functions as a museum. In that capacity, it has been distinguished twice by the United Nations within the frame of the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development.

2. Singapore Botanic Gardens

a part of the Singapore botanic garden

This huge landscaped garden is one of the most beloved national gardens of Singapore. The 183-acre terrain perfectly showcases the geographic features of the region. It prides itself in having over 20.000 orchids. It also features exotic animals such as wild monkeys, terrapins and around 100 different types of birds.

3. Brooklyn Botanic Garden

a fountain in the middle of the Brooklyn botanic garden

Located in the mythical New York borough, this botanical garden extends across 52 acres of classical East Coast urban style architecture that’s heavily punctuated by beautiful specimens of plants. It features social, community outreach and educational programs that help expand its reach beyond its walls.

4. Jardim Botânico

an alley with very tall trees in a botanical garden

A legendary space in Brazil, Jardim Botânico has been around since 1808. Its 140 hectares of botanical space are home to over 6.500 different animal species. You will find this amazing botanical garden in Rio de Janeiro’s Zona Sul. Besides their local species, you can also admire a wide range of foreign flora.

5. Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose Indian Botanic Garden

a lake in an Indian botanic garden

This amazing piece of land used to be known as the Indian Botanic Garden and the Calcutta Botanical Garden. It’s famous for having huge amounts of Great Banyan trees. This type of tree holds the record of having the largest canopy in the world. The garden is also home to around 12.000 specimens of plants, including some very rare ones.

6. Montreal Botanical Garden

a small car covered in plants

This is, without a doubt, one of the most important botanical gardens in Canada. Not only that, it’s widely recognized as one of the largest botanical gardens in the world. One of its unique aspects is that it emphasizes and promotes diversity through a series of globally-themed sub-gardens.

7. Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden

a beautiful mountain area

Situated at the foot of the amazing Table Mountain in Cape Town, South Africa, the Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden was originally conceived as a means of preserving the country’s unique flora. Accordingly, it’s the only garden that currently cultivates only indigenous plants.

8. Denver Botanic Gardens

a small lake and trees in the Denver botanical garden

Being one of the biggest in the region, this garden’s 23 acres are home to the largest collection of North American plants that live in cold and temperate climates. It even includes an amphitheater and a conservatory for public showings.

9. Nong Nooch Tropical Botanical Garden

a beautiful botanic garden in Thailand

This is an amazing 500-acre botanical garden located in the profoundly beautiful Chonburi Province of Thailand. It features an impressive collection of plants distributed in 50 different themed gardens.

10. Kew Royal Botanic Gardens

a greenhouse in a botanical garden

Last but not least, the Kew Royal Botanic Gardens is home to the biggest collection of plants in the entire world. It’s so large that it offers its visitors an internal train service to get around it. Amazingly elegant, the Royal Botanic Gardens is a true symbol of royalty. Something that sets it apart from other botanical gardens is that it’s been deemed a UNESCO World Heritage site. As if that was not enough, it also serves as a research and education institution.

Which of The Amazing Botanical Gardens Should You Visit?

Choosing the best botanical garden to visit will always depend on your lifestyle. Even though all the mentioned botanical gardens are wonderful in their own way, each of them has a certain something that makes it stand out from the others.

For example, people who enjoy exotic fauna and flora will get a real kick out of institutions such as the Singapore Botanic Garden or the Jardim Botânico of Brazil. On the other hand, people who seek a combination of carefully curated collections of plants and beautiful architecture will love urban staples like the Brooklyn Botanic Garden.

Some of these places even feature social spaces that help build a community spirit. A great example of this is the Nong Nooch Tropical Botanical Garden, which is perhaps the most indicated one for family visits in this list. Others are geared more towards education and research.

The most outstanding one in this category is definitely the Royal Botanic Gardens in Kew, England. However, the Montreal Botanical Garden gives all the others a run for their money when it comes to cultural diversity. In the end, you should choose the botanical garden that attracts your type of personality the most.

Bottom Line

Even though they are all different, all of the botanical gardens that are mentioned in this article have the capability of transporting visitors to a better, calmer place. Without a doubt, they mean something special for every visitor.

However, everyone can agree that visiting a botanical garden is a spiritual experience that brings them closer to the earth itself. Whether your intention is learning, meditating, discovering or simply relaxing, one of these places will surely find a way to your heart. Do you think we should have included any other botanical gardens in this list? Let us know in the comments!

Image sources: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12

Top 10 Richest Countries in the World 2019

Countries are considered rich if their citizens earn enough money to support their daily needs. We have provided the top 10 richest nations in the world. These countries have the highest GDP per capita, measured and calculated in international dollars. Many things such as the output value, income value, and expenditure value are all taken into consideration when it comes to ranking. But while the wealthy countries below have a huge money value, their breathtaking pictures are just as rich!

10. Australia” alt=”1408113897″ width=”702″ height=”395″ />” rel=”nofollow”>” target=”_blank”>Source:

Luxembourg is among some of the most prosperous countries in Europe. It is recognized as a tax heaven and a destination for many billionaires due to the fact that they can free themselves of expensive taxes in their native country. Luxembourg’s two main sources of income include telecommunication their steel industry. Luxembourg’s GDP is marked at 97, 639.


1. Qatar

Q: What makes a country rich?

A: The countries resources, economic system, economic ideologies in society, economic growth, looks into exports and debt, and GDP. 

Q: What is GDP?

A: GDP is the total value of all final goods and services produced for the marketplace during a given period. It’s the amount of output the average worker can provide in an hour, the number of hours the average worker spends at the job. The fraction of the population that is working as well as the size of the population. 

Q: What are imports and exports?

A: An import in the receiving country is an export from the sending country. 

Q: Why do countries import and export goods?

A: Countries export and import goods for many reasons. It’s important for the development and growth of national economies because not all countries have the resources and even skills that are needed for certain goods and or service.

Q: Is a country with a higher population richer?

A: This is not always true there are many countries with a high population but is poor. There is evidence that when a country grows the population grows as well.


Final Thoughts

It is an important thing to remember that countries can be rich or poor for all types of reasons, and the wealth or poverty of a country is never dependent on the worth or even hard work of the people in the nation. Factors such as what types of natural resources have been discovered and traded is a factor. How long the country has been a nation is also a factor. The leadership of the country and how the government works is another important factor. The amount the people are allowed to own businesses, employ others, and use their natural gifts and resources all play a role in this.


If you have been blessed to be born into a nation that is already rich, be grateful! Get involved in getting the right people in office who will continue on with making the nation you are part of wealthier. If you are in this boat, look at the nations who are poorer for what they are. There is no use in shaming, looking down upon, or speaking down to nations who are not as wealthy. What can and should be done is giving of help and hope for those who are not as blessed as you/us. 


Thankfully, there are so many ways to help developing nations. We can get involved in it by basic and fun things, such as tourism. Tourism only helps a nations economy! Purchasing locally supports small and large businesses in the nation. Another way is by giving money to projects that have the purpose of helping these nations. Do your research, and then give to those making an impact! These are just a few ways you can help other nations and give back from what you’ve been given to leave an impact on the world. 

12 of the Worst Prisons in the World – Inhumane Experiences

empty Waikeria Prison

Forget everything that you think you know about prisons based on what you see on the television. You should know that the worst prisons in the world are not open for public viewings unless you earn the right to stay there. These facilities are not only overcrowded, but inmates are also dealing with torture, abuse, violence, and disease. These are just some of the things they’re subjected to on a daily basis.

Forget the weight rooms, the ping-pong tables, and the orderly line of inmates in the mess hall. Today, you will get a taste of the 12 worst prisons in the world. There’s no particular order of this list, as each of them has its own terrifying parts.

1. New York’s Attica Correctional Facility

Located in the city that doesn’t sleep, Attica Correctional Facility is considered by many inmates who have spent time there as the top of the worst prisons in the world. Housing the most violent of offenders, riots are just a part of everyday life in this prison dating back to 1930.

2. Israel’s Camp 1931

In northern Israel, there is one of the worst prisons in the world, Camp 1931. This high-risk prison camp was so secretive it was only discovered a decade ago, even though it is less than an hour from Tel Aviv. Not only are the identities of the prisoners classified, but so are the actions that take place between prisoners and guards.

3. Kenya’s Kamiti Maximum Security Prison

The roughest place to be imprisoned in Kenya is the Kamiti Maximum Security Prison. Rumors of sodomy pale in comparison to the daily beatings that result in the deaths of inmates each day.

In addition to daily beatings between guards and inmates, there are unlimited cases of inmates developing ulcers, cholera, and suffering malnutrition. Housing mostly political prisoners, the inmates are treated like animals during their time.

4. Russia’s Petak Island Prison

When the worst prisons in the world come to mind, most think of Alcatraz in California. The Petak Island Prison in Russia is considered to be their version of Alcatraz, but hundreds of times worse.

Inmates spend days locked in maximum security cells, isolated from guards and inmates. Due to the close proximity to nearby freezing water and snow, those prisoners often die of hypothermia.

5. Russia’s Butyrka Prison

Russia makes the list again, and Butyrka Prison is considered even more dangerous than Petak Island. Cells that were made to hold 10 prisoners are stuffed with 100 inmates.

AIDS and tuberculosis are spread easily throughout the prison, a facility that is busting at the seams with 20,000 of the most violent criminals. Prisoners are subjected to hard labor and left to deal with illnesses with little interaction from the staff.

6. France’s La Sante Prison

prison wall with barbed wire

Located in beautiful Paris, France, don’t let the surroundings of La Sante Prison catch you off guard. Considered to be one of the worst prisons in the world, this facility contains more lice and rats than there are prisoners.

Conditions are so deplorable in La Sante that inmates commit suicide on a regular basis. The jail was built in 1867, and it looks every bit of its age.

7. Lima’s San Juan de Lurigancho

Considered to be the roughest prison in South America, it is no wonder San Juan de Lurigancho makes the list of the worst prisons in the world. Constructed to hold 2,500 prisoners, today it has well over 7,000 inmates in close proximity to each other. Guards have no control any longer. As a result, inmates rule the prison and result in countless cases of rape and murder each week.

8. Rwanda’s Gitarama Central Prison

Prisoners in the United States don’t know how good they have it. The conditions in Gitarama Central Prison in Rwanda are so bad, that it isn’t uncommon for inmates to eat the flesh of other inmates to stay alive. Part of the reason for the incredibly horrible conditions is the prison was built to hold 400 war criminals. Today, the number has exploded to 7,000 inmates.

9. North Korea’s Camp 21

Even the worst prisons in the world have to stand back in disbelief at the conditions in Camp 21 in North Korea. This is a political prison camp isolated from the rest of the world. Therefore, conditions are most likely worse than even described. Not only are inmates subjected to decades of torture, but they are also imprisoned with their families. Many of these families are given life sentences of hard labor.

10. Brazil’s Carandiru Penitentiary

Originally opened in 1920, the Carandiru Penitentiary in Brazil was so overpopulated and disease-ridden that it closed in 2002. Not only were 111 inmates killed during a riot, but they were also dealing with 8,000 cases of AIDS throughout the facility.

11. Venezuela’s La Sabaneta

Looking at pictures of the deplorable and inhumane conditions inside La Sabeneta in Venezuela, you’ll understand why it is one of the worst prisons in the world. Not only are diseases of all sorts running rampant in the prison, but the cells are also flooded, dirty, and overcrowded. Add to the mix the understaffed facility which allows diseases to go untreated in La Sabaneta.

12. Turkey’s Diyarbakır Prison

prison cell jail

Built in 1980, the Diyarbakir Prison in Turkey is considered to be the most inhumane and violent of all prison systems in the world. Those prisoners who are considered the worst of this bunch are locked in small cages where they have to squat with three other inmates.

The guards are not only handing out physical torture to inmates, but they also get mentally tortured too. The facility has different sectors that were designed to house hundreds. Currently, there are thousands of violent inmates.

13. New York’s Rikers Island

This prison is notorious for its secluded location and brutal disciplinary tactics.

Guards have been sued on multiple occasions by inmates and family members of inmates for doling out excessive punishments either themselves or through others. Surprisingly often, guards at Rikers Island have resorted to ordering multiple inmates to ambush others for a variety of reasons, resulting hospitalization of the victims and worse.

The injuries that inmates have sustained from guards at this facility include deep, sever lacerations, life-threatening head trauma and multiple broken bones. Suffice to say, this is definitely no place you would wan to stay.

Final Word

This list of 12 of the worst prisons in the world barely scratches the surface. Many of the other prison systems are so bad that conditions are kept a secret from the outside world.

If you have heard of similar conditions in a prison not on the list, please share your information to help give our readers more understanding of the worst prisons in the world.

Image source: 1, 2

Top 10 Best Banks In the World In 2019

We usually keep our money in the bank to ensure it is safety, but banks also help us transact certain amounts of money in or out of town. We also need banks to offer us the huge benefits of various loan facilities. In recent times, the functions of banks have been diversified to include more services than just holding your savings. As such, banks continue to play a huge role in the growth of a country’s economy. It is common knowledge that banks help to improve the financial situation of a country and can help it get out of difficult economic situations. Loans and many other services are offered to the bank account holders to help them meet their short-term and long-term financial needs. The top 10 best banks in the world for 2019, written in order, are listed below. These asset and capital statistics were provided by Accuity.

10. Crédit Agricole SA; France

The Crédit Agricole SA bank in France is ranked tenth, with $1,858,787.00 million in assets and its capital set at 9,840. This bank is also known as the Green Bank, thanks to its environmental and green appeal. There are a total of thirty nine regional banks.

Although they are incredibly successful, they are also the center of much controversy. In 2007, they had to spend 250 million euros because of trading loss at its New York location.

9. Japan Post Bank Co Ltd.; Japan

The Japan Pot Bank Co Ltd. in Japan is ranked ninth, with $1,882,955 million in assets and its capital set at 31,537. In November of 2008, it was ranked as the world’s biggest deposit holder. This bank’s headquarters are located in Tokyo and is the most popular baking branch in Japan.

8. MUFG Bank Ltd.; Japan

MUFG Banks Ltd., established in 2006 is Japan’s largest bank. It was founded following the merger of the Bank of Tokyo-Mistubishi, Ltd. and UFJ Bank Ltd. It is ranked eighth, with $2,032,735 million in assets and its capital set at 15,426.

The bank now serves as the core retail, corporate, and investment banking branch of the Mistubishi UFJ Financial Group. They also have offices throughout Japan and in 40 other countries.

7. JPMorgan Chase Bank National Association; United States of America

The JPMorgan Chase Bank National Association is ranked seventh, with $2,218,960 million in assets and its capital set at 1,785. This banking association is by far the biggest in America, and is based in the business headquarters of the U.S., New York City. They have a revenue of $109 billion and over 256,000 employees in their locations.

6. BNP Paribas SA; France

The BNP Paribas SA bank in France is ranked sixth, with $2,335,320 million in assets and its capital set at 30,937. They are one of the largest banks in France were founded in 1848. They serve worldwide and have approximately 202,000 employees. Their main domestic services are located in countries like Italy, Belgium, and Luxembourg.

5. China Development Bank; China

The China Development Bank is ranked fifth, with $2,352,265 million in assests and its capital set at 61,242. They were founded in 1994 and are led by a cabinet minister at the Goivernor level, under the jurisdiction of the State Council. CDB currently has 37 primary branches and three secondary on the Chinese mainland.

Their respresentative offices include Cairo, Moscow, Rio de Janeiro, Caracas, London, Vientaine, Astana, Minsk, Jakara, and Sydney. Between them, they have about 9,000 people on staff.

4. Bank of China Limited; China

The Bank of China Limited in China is ranked fourth, with $3,091,893 million in assets and its capital set at 42,799. This bank has over 300,000 employees.

It is the oldest bank in China, being found in 1912. They are based in Beijing.

3. Agricultural Bank of China Limited; China

The Agricultural Bank of China Limited is ranked third, with $3,287,025 million in assets and its capital set at 62,497. They are very big, with over 440,000 employees at their locations. They were founded in 1951 and their head bank is located in Beijing.

Sadly, they’re popular because of the biggest bank robbery in China, when in the April of 2007, two of the workers stole over $7.5 million dollars.

2. China Construction Bank Corporation; China

The China Construction Bank Corporation is ranked second, with $3,376,177 million in assets and its capital set at 36,347. They are one of the “big four” banks in the People’s Republic of China. With over 300,000 employees and have over 13,000 domestic branches. They were founded in 1954 and their headquarters are in Beijing.

1. Industrial & Commercial Bank of China Limited; China

The Industrial & Commercial Bank of China Limited is currently the largest and best bank in the world, with $4,027,032 million in assets and its capital set at 64,326. They are one of the newer companies, founded in 1984. They too are stationed in Beijing and have over 375,000 employees.

It was the first Chinese bank to gain the title of the largest bank in the world, measured by assets. It continues to thrive today and will be very hard to beat.

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